WM, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Neutraler Ort, 1, 1, 0, 0, 3: 0. ∑, 1, 1, 0, 0, 3: 0. WM-Quali . Europa, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Zu Hause, 6, 5, 1, 0, 3. Auswärts, 6, 2, 3, 1, 6. 1. Febr. Warum fühlen sich die Polen bei den Briten so wohl? der EU beigetreten Staaten ab Dezember ein neues Leben in England suchen. Legendenstatus genießt die Beteiligung polnischer Piloten bei der Luftschlacht um England in den Monaten Juli bis Oktober Die polnischen Flieger,
His out-swinger is headed clear at the near post but Baker retrieves it at the edge of the area and manoeuvres himself into a shooting position.
But his right-footed blast is blocked. Another freekick to England, this time for a foul on Chambers. Ward-Prowse delivers again, from about 40 yards out and to the right.
Creating chances is a great thing, but continually missing them eventually inspires the opposition. England could really do with killing this game off pronto.
Poland are looking a tad more dangerous. Pickford has remained untroubled in the England goal. Gray fires in a low cross from the left.
Ward-Prowse produces another exceptional delivery from a freekick, again sending the ball bouncing invitingly across the face of goal.
But again England fail to get on the end of it. Murphy did very well as a right-back in the second half against Slovakia but he appears to be playing up front alongside Gray here.
Poland get second half going and immediately launch it long towards the right flank, where Kownacki jumps to compete for it with Holgate, who wins the duel.
To finish the hosts off, the manager would be well advised to replace Redmond with Abraham for the second half. Even without that, however, England will cruise through to the semi-finals unless Poland improve radically.
Chilwell and Gray combine yet again down the left - the Leicester double-act has really irritated the Poles since the start.
This time, however, England decide against crossing - probably because Redmond is no kind of target man - and England just knock the ball about until the ref blows for half-time.
Poland are there for the taking. England are clearly better. They need a second goal to confirm that, though. Because no matter what the cliche says, is always a more dangerous scoreline than After a foul by Hughes, Ward-Prowse produces a magnificent delivery from the freekick, floating the ball tantalisingly acros the face of goal.
Swift hurls himself at it but fails to connect. Eventually, after several battles the uprising was suppressed by the Prussians, and the Grand Duchy of Posen was more completely incorporated into Prussia.
In , a new Polish uprising against Russian rule began. The January Uprising started out as a spontaneous protest by young Poles against conscription into the Imperial Russian Army.
However, the insurrectionists, despite being joined by high-ranking Polish-Lithuanian officers and numerous politicians, were still severely outnumbered and lacking in foreign support.
They were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare tactics and failed to win any major military victories. Afterwards no major uprising was witnessed in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland, and Poles resorted instead to fostering economic and cultural self-improvement.
Despite the political unrest experienced during the partitions, Poland did benefit from large-scale industrialisation and modernisation programs, instituted by the occupying powers, which helped it develop into a more economically coherent and viable entity.
This was particularly true in Greater Poland, Silesia and Eastern Pomerania controlled by Prussia later becoming a part of the German Empire ; areas which eventually, thanks largely to the Greater Poland Uprising of and Silesian Uprisings , were reconstituted as a part of the Second Polish Republic , becoming the country's most prosperous regions.
A total of 2 million Polish troops fought with the armies of the three occupying powers, and , died. It reaffirmed its independence after a series of military conflicts , the most notable being the Polish—Soviet War —21 when Poland inflicted a crushing defeat on the Red Army at the Battle of Warsaw , an event which is considered to have halted the advance of Communism into Europe and forced Vladimir Lenin to rethink his objective of achieving global socialism.
The event is often referred to as the "Miracle at the Vistula". During this period, Poland successfully managed to fuse the territories of the three former partitioning powers into a cohesive nation state.
Railways were restructured to direct traffic towards Warsaw instead of the former imperial capitals, a new network of national roads was gradually built up and a major seaport was opened on the Baltic Coast, so as to allow Polish exports and imports to bypass the politically charged Free City of Danzig.
The inter-war period heralded in a new era of Polish politics. Whilst Polish political activists had faced heavy censorship in the decades up until the First World War, the country now found itself trying to establish a new political tradition.
For this reason, many exiled Polish activists, such as Ignacy Paderewski who would later become prime minister returned home to help; a significant number of them then went on to take key positions in the newly formed political and governmental structures.
As a subsequent result of the Munich Agreement in , Czechoslovakia ceded to Poland the small sq mi Zaolzie region.
The area was a point of contention between the Polish and Czechoslovak governments in the past and the two countries fought a brief seven-day war over it in On 28 September Warsaw fell.
In —41, the Soviets deported hundreds of thousands of Poles. In July the Polish Cipher Bureau had taught Britain and France how to crack German Enigma codes , which it had been doing since using mathematics and technology such as the Bomba and Zygalski sheets.
Poland made the fourth-largest troop contribution in Europe [f] and its troops served both the Polish Government in Exile in the west and Soviet leadership in the east.
Polish troops played an important role in the Normandy , Italian and North African Campaigns and are particularly remembered for the Battle of Monte Cassino.
During the Battle of Britain Polish squadrons such as the No. The Polish Navy protected the Dunkirk evacuation and Atlantic convoys.
The wartime resistance movement , and the Armia Krajowa Home Army , fought against German occupation. It was one of the three largest resistance movements of the entire war, [g] and encompassed a range of clandestine activities, which functioned as an underground state complete with degree-awarding universities and a court system.
Secondary motives were to liberate Warsaw before the Soviets, to underscore Polish sovereignty by empowering the Polish Underground State before the Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation could assume control.
A lack of Allied support and Stalin's reluctance to allow the 1st Army to help their fellow countrymen take the city led to the uprising's failure and subsequent planned destruction of the city.
Nazi forces under orders from Adolf Hitler set up six German extermination camps in occupied Poland, including Treblinka , Majdanek and Auschwitz.
The Germans transported Jews from across occupied Europe to murder them in the camps. Throughout the occupation , many members of the Armia Krajowa, supported by the Polish government in exile , and millions of ordinary Poles — at great risk to themselves and their families — engaged in rescuing Jews from the Nazi Germans.
Grouped by nationality, Poles represent the largest number of people who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. To date, 6, Poles have been awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel—more than any other nation.
The massacres were part of a vicious ethnic clensing campaign waged by Ukrainian nationalists against the local Polish population in the German-occupied territories of eastern Poland.
In , Poland's borders were shifted westwards , resulting in considerable territorial losses. The shift forced the migration of millions of other people , most of whom were Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, and Jews.
Population numbers did not recover until the s. At the insistence of Joseph Stalin , the Yalta Conference sanctioned the formation of a new provisional pro-Communist coalition government in Moscow, which ignored the Polish government-in-exile based in London; a move which angered many Poles who considered it a betrayal by the Allies.
In , Stalin had made guarantees to Churchill and Roosevelt that he would maintain Poland's sovereignty and allow democratic elections to take place.
However, upon achieving victory in , the elections organized by the occupying Soviet authorities were falsified and were used to provide a veneer of 'legitimacy' for Soviet hegemony over Polish affairs.
The Soviet Union instituted a new communist government in Poland, analogous to much of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. As elsewhere in Communist Europe the Soviet occupation of Poland met with armed resistance from the outset which continued into the fifties.
Military alignment within the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War came about as a direct result of this change in Poland's political culture and in the European scene came to characterise the full-fledged integration of Poland into the brotherhood of communist nations.
Collectivization in the Polish People's Republic failed. A similar situation repeated itself in the s under Edward Gierek , but most of the time persecution of anti-communist opposition groups persisted.
Despite this, Poland was at the time considered to be one of the least oppressive states of the Soviet Bloc. Despite persecution and imposition of martial law in , it eroded the dominance of the Polish United Workers' Party and by had triumphed in Poland's first partially free and democratic parliamentary elections since the end of the Second World War.
The Solidarity movement heralded the collapse of communist regimes and parties across Europe. A shock therapy programme, initiated by Leszek Balcerowicz in the early s enabled the country to transform its socialist-style planned economy into a market economy.
As with other post-communist countries, Poland suffered slumps in social and economic standards,  but it became the first post-communist country to reach its pre GDP levels, which it achieved by largely thanks to its booming economy.
Most visibly, there were numerous improvements in human rights, such as freedom of speech , internet freedom no censorship , civil liberties 1st class and political rights 1st class , as ranked by Freedom House non-governmental organization.
Poles then voted to join the European Union in a referendum in June , with Poland becoming a full member on 1 May Poland joined the Schengen Area in , as a result of which, the country's borders with other member states of the European Union have been dismantled, allowing for full freedom of movement within most of the EU.
That border has become increasingly well protected, and has led in part to the coining of the phrase 'Fortress Europe' , in reference to the seeming 'impossibility' of gaining entry to the EU for citizens of the former Soviet Union.
These battle groups will operate outside of NATO and within the European defense initiative framework. In , the Presidency of the Council of the European Union responsible for the functioning of the Council was awarded to Poland.
The same year parliamentary elections took place in both the Senate and the Sejm. They were won by the ruling Civic Platform.
In , Poland also became a member of the Development Assistance Committee. This coast is marked by several spits , coastal lakes former bays that have been cut off from the sea , and dunes.
The centre and parts of the north of the country lie within the North European Plain. Rising above these lowlands is a geographical region comprising four hilly districts of moraines and moraine-dammed lakes formed during and after the Pleistocene ice age.
The Masurian Lake District is the largest of the four and covers much of north-eastern Poland. The lake districts form part of the Baltic Ridge, a series of moraine belts along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.
South of the Northern European Plain are the regions of Lusatia , Silesia and Masovia , which are marked by broad ice-age river valleys. The highest part of the Carpathians is the Tatra Mountains , along Poland's southern border.
Both processes shaped the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains. The moraine landscape of northern Poland contains soils made up mostly of sand or loam , while the ice age river valleys of the south often contain loess.
The Polish Jura , the Pieniny , and the Western Tatras consist of limestone , while the High Tatras , the Beskids , and the Karkonosze are made up mainly of granite and basalts.
The Polish Jura Chain has some of the oldest rock formation on the continent of Europe. Poland has 70 mountains over 2, metres 6, feet in elevation, all in the Tatras.
The Polish Tatras, which consist of the High Tatras and the Western Tatras, is the highest mountain group of Poland and of the entire Carpathian range.
The lowest point in Poland — at 1. It is not a natural desert but results from human activity from the Middle Ages onwards. As waves and wind carry sand inland the dunes slowly move, at a rate of 3 to 10 metres 9.
The highest peak of the park is Rowokol metres or feet above sea level. The longest rivers are the Vistula Polish: The eastern Beskids are also the source of some streams that drain through the Dniester to the Black Sea.
Poland's rivers have been used since early times for navigation. The Vikings , for example, traveled up the Vistula and the Oder in their longships.
With almost ten thousand closed bodies of water covering more than 1 hectare 2. In Europe, only Finland has a greater density of lakes.
In addition to the lake districts in the north in Masuria, Pomerania, Kashubia , Lubuskie, and Greater Poland , there is also a large number of mountain lakes in the Tatras, of which the Morskie Oko is the largest in area.
Among the first lakes whose shores were settled are those in the Greater Polish Lake District. The stilt house settlement of Biskupin , occupied by more than one thousand residents, was founded before the 7th century BC by people of the Lusatian culture.
Lakes have always played an important role in Polish history and continue to be of great importance to today's modern Polish society. The ancestors of today's Poles, the Polanie , built their first fortresses on islands in these lakes.
Nowadays the Polish lakes provide a location for the pursuit of water sports such as yachting and wind-surfing. For the most part, Poland has a smooth coastline, which has been shaped by the continual movement of sand by currents and winds.
The largest spits are Hel Peninsula and the Vistula Spit. The coast line is varied also by Szczecin and Vistula Lagoons and a few lakes, e.
Poland is the fourth most forested country in Europe. Forests cover about The richness of Polish forest per SoEF statistics [ clarification needed ] is more than twice as high as European average with Germany and France at the top , containing 2.
Three more national parks are projected for Masuria , the Polish Jura, and the eastern Beskids. In addition, wetlands along lakes and rivers in central Poland are legally protected, as are coastal areas in the north.
There are over areas designated as landscape parks , along with numerous nature reserves and other protected areas e. Since Poland's accession to the European Union in , Polish agriculture has performed extremely well and the country has over two million private farms.
According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the territory of Poland belongs to three Palearctic Ecoregions of the continental forest spanning Central and Northern European temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregions as well as the Carpathian montane conifer forest.
In the forests there are game animals, such as red deer , roe deer and wild boar. Poland is the most important breeding ground for a variety of European migratory birds.
Both survived in Poland longer than anywhere else. The climate is mostly temperate throughout the country. The climate is oceanic in the north and west and becomes gradually warmer and continental towards the south and east.
Precipitation falls throughout the year, although, especially in the east, winter is drier than summer. The coldest region of Poland is in the northeast in the Podlaskie Voivodeship near the borders with Belarus and Lithuania.
The climate is affected by cold fronts which come from Scandinavia and Siberia. Poland is a representative democracy , with a president as a head of state , whose current constitution dates from Poland ranks in the top 20 percent of the most peaceful countries in the world, according to the Global Peace Index.
The government structure centers on the Council of Ministers , led by a prime minister. The president appoints the cabinet according to the proposals of the prime minister, typically from the majority coalition in the Sejm.
The president is elected by popular vote every five years. The current president is Andrzej Duda and the prime minister is Mateusz Morawiecki.
Polish voters elect a bicameral parliament consisting of a member lower house Sejm and a member Senate Senat. The Sejm is elected under proportional representation according to the d'Hondt method , a method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems.
The Senat, on the other hand, is elected under the first-past-the-post voting method, with one senator being returned from each of the constituencies.
The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: To date only the first instance has occurred. The judicial branch plays an important role in decision-making.
The ombudsman has the duty of guarding the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of Polish citizens and residents, of the law and of principles of community life and social justice.
The Constitution of Poland is the supreme law in contemporary Poland, and the Polish legal system is based on the principle of civil rights, governed by the code of Civil Law.
Historically, the most famous Polish legal act is the Constitution of 3 May Historian Norman Davies describes it as the first of its kind in Europe.
Primarily, it was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the federative Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and its Golden Liberty.
Previously only the Henrician Articles signed by each of Poland's elected kings could perform the function of a set of basic laws. The new Constitution introduced political equality between townspeople and the nobility szlachta , and placed the peasants under the protection of the government.
The Constitution abolished pernicious parliamentary institutions such as the liberum veto , which at one time had placed the sejm at the mercy of any deputy who might choose, or be bribed by an interest or foreign power, to have rescinded all the legislation that had been passed by that sejm.
The 3 May Constitution sought to supplant the existing anarchy fostered by some of the country's reactionary magnates , with a more egalitarian and democratic constitutional monarchy.
The adoption of the constitution was treated as a threat by Poland's neighbours. The Republic and Article 54 section II.
Feminism in Poland started in the s in the age of the foreign Partitions. Prior to the last Partition in , tax-paying females were allowed to take part in political life.
Since , following the return to independence, all women could vote. Poland was the 15th 12th sovereign country to introduce universal women's suffrage.
Currently, in Poland abortion is allowed only in special circumstances, such as when the woman's life or health is endangered by the continuation of pregnancy, when the pregnancy is a result of a criminal act, or when the fetus is seriously malformed.
Also, Poland recognises gender change. Poland's current constitution was adopted by the National Assembly of Poland on 2 April , approved by a national referendum on 25 May , and came into effect on 17 October It guarantees a multi-party state, the freedoms of religion, speech and assembly, and specifically casts off many Communist ideals to create a ' free market economic system '.
It requires public officials to pursue ecologically sound public policy and acknowledges the inviolability of the home, the right to form trade unions, and to strike, whilst at the same time prohibiting the practices of forced medical experimentation, torture and corporal punishment.
In recent years, Poland has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other European nations and a large number of 'developing' countries.
As changes since the fall of Communism in have redrawn the map of Europe, Poland has tried to forge strong and mutually beneficial relationships with its seven new neighbours, this has notably included signing 'friendship treaties' to replace links severed by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact.
Poland has forged a special relationships with Ukraine ,  with whom it co-hosted the UEFA Euro football tournament, in an effort to firmly anchor the country within the Western world and provide it with an alternative to aligning itself with the Russian Federation.
Despite many positive developments in the region, Poland has found itself in a position where it must seek to defend the rights of ethnic Poles living in the former Soviet Union ; this is particularly true of Belarus , where in the Lukashenko regime launched a campaign against the Polish ethnic minority.
Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union and has a grand total of 51 representatives in the European Parliament. Ever since joining the union in , successive Polish governments have pursued policies to increase the country's role in European and regional affairs.
Poland's current voivodeships provinces are largely based on the country's historic regions, whereas those of the past two decades to had been centred on and named for individual cities.
Administrative authority at voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed voivode governor , an elected regional assembly sejmik and a voivodeship marshal, an executive elected by that assembly.
The voivodeships are subdivided into powiats often referred to in English as counties , and these are further divided into gminas also known as communes or municipalities.
Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland has 16 voivodeships, powiats including 66 cities with powiat status , and 2, gminas.
The Polish armed forces are composed of five branches: Plans call for the force, once fully active, to consist of 53, people who will be trained and equipped to counter potential hybrid warfare threats.
However, its commander-in-chief is the President of the Republic. The Polish army's size is estimated at around , soldiers The Polish Navy primarily operates in the Baltic Sea and conducts operations such as maritime patrol, search and rescue for the section of the Baltic under Polish sovereignty, as well as hydrographic measurements and research.
Also, the Polish Navy played a more international role as part of the invasion of Iraq , providing logistical support for the United States Navy.
The current position of the Polish Air Force is much the same; it has routinely taken part in Baltic Air Policing assignments, but otherwise, with the exception of a number of units serving in Afghanistan , has seen no active combat.
In , the FC Block 52 was chosen as the new general multi-role fighter for the air force, the first deliveries taking place in November The most important mission of the armed forces is the defence of Polish territorial integrity and Polish interests abroad.
Compulsory military service for men was discontinued in From , until conscription ended in , the mandatory service was nine months.
Polish military doctrine reflects the same defensive nature as that of its NATO partners. From to Poland was a large contributor to various United Nations peacekeeping missions.
Currently, Poland's military is going through a significant modernization phase, which will be completed in Also, the army plans to modernize its existing inventory of main battle tanks , and update its stock of small arms.
In May the Ministry of National Defence has assured that the Polish army will be increased to , active personnel. Poland has a highly developed system of law enforcement with a long history of effective policing by the State Police Service Policja.
The structure of law enforcement agencies within Poland is a multi-tier one, with the State Police providing criminal-investigative services, Municipal Police serving to maintain public order and a number of other specialized agencies, such as the Polish Border Guard , acting to fulfill their assigned missions.
In addition to these state services, private security companies are also common, although they possess no powers assigned to state agencies, such as, for example, the power to make an arrest or detain a suspect.
Emergency services in Poland consist of the emergency medical services , search and rescue units of the Polish Armed Forces and State Fire Service.
Emergency medical services in Poland are, unlike other services, provided for by local and regional government. Since joining the European Union all of Poland's emergency services have been undergoing major restructuring and have, in the process, acquired large amounts of new equipment and staff.
In addition, the police and other agencies have been steadily replacing and modernising their fleets of vehicles.
Poland's economy is considered to be one of the more resilient of the post-Communist countries and is one of the fastest growing within the EU. It is an example of the transition from a centrally planned to a primarily market-based economy.
The country's most successful exports include machinery, furniture, food products, clothing, shoes and cosmetics. The privatization of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms have allowed the development of the private sector.
Also, several consumer rights organizations have become active in the country. Restructuring and privatisation of "sensitive sectors" such as coal, steel, rail transport and energy has been continuing since The Polish banking sector is the largest in the Central and Eastern European region,  with They are regulated by the Polish Financial Supervision Authority.
During the transformation to a market-oriented economy, the government privatized several banks, recapitalized the rest, and introduced legal reforms that made the sector more competitive.
This has attracted a significant number of strategic foreign investors ICFI. Poland's banking sector has approximately 5 national banks, a network of nearly cooperative banks and 18 branches of foreign-owned banks.
Poland has a large number of private farms in its agricultural sector, with the potential to become a leading producer of food in the European Union.
The biggest money-makers abroad include smoked and fresh fish, fine chocolate, and dairy products, meats and specialty breads,  with the exchange rate conducive to export growth.
Warsaw leads Central Europe in foreign investment. Since the gradual opening of the European Union labor market from , Poland has had mass emigration of over 2.
Products and goods manufactured in Poland include: Poland is also one of the world's biggest producers of copper , silver and coal , as well as potatoes , rye , rapeseed , cabbage , apples , strawberries and ribes.
Poland is recognised as a regional economic leader within Central Europe, with nearly 40 percent of the biggest companies in the region by revenues as well as a high globalisation rate.
The economic transition in has resulted in a dynamic increase in the number and value of investments conducted by Polish corporations abroad. Over a quarter of these companies have participated in a foreign project or joint venture , and 72 percent decided to continue foreign expansion.
According to reports made by the National Bank of Poland , the value of Polish foreign direct investments reached almost billion PLN at the end of The Central Statistical Office estimated that in there were around 1, Polish corporations with interests in 3, foreign entities.
Poland experienced an increase in the number of tourists after joining the European Union in Tourist attractions in Poland vary, from the mountains in the south to the sandy beaches in the north, with a trail of nearly every architectural style.
The Polish capital Warsaw and its historical Old Town were entirely reconstructed after wartime destruction. Poland's main tourist offerings include outdoor activities such as skiing, sailing, mountain hiking and climbing, as well as agrotourism, sightseeing historical monuments.
The Pieniny and Bieszczady Mountains lie in the extreme south-east. The electricity generation sector in Poland is largely fossil-fuel —based.
Many power plants nationwide use Poland's position as a major European exporter of coal to their advantage by continuing to use coal as the primary raw material in production of their energy.
In , Poland scored 48 out of states in the Energy Sustainability Index. All three of these companies are key constituents of the Warsaw Stock Exchange 's lead economic indexes.
Renewable forms of energy account for a smaller proportion of Poland's full energy generation capacity.
This is to be achieved mainly through the construction of wind farms and a number of hydroelectric stations.
Poland has around ,,, m 3 of proven natural gas reserves and around 96,, barrels of proven oil reserves. However, the small amounts of fossil fuels naturally occurring in Poland is insufficient to satisfy the full energy consumption needs of the population.
Therefore, the country is a net importer of oil and natural gas. Transport in Poland is provided by means of rail , road , marine shipping and air travel.
Positioned in Central Europe with its eastern and part of its northeastern border constituting the longest land border of the Schengen Area with the rest of Northern and Central Europe.
Since joining the EU in May , Poland has invested large amounts of public funds into modernization projects of its transport networks.
The country now has a developing network of highways , composed of express roads and motorways such as A1 , A2 , A4 , A6 , A8 , A In addition to these newly built roads, many local and regional roads are being fixed as part of a national programme to rebuild all roads in Poland.
Polish authorities maintain a program of improving operating speeds across the entire Polish rail network. Additionally, in December , Poland began to implement high—speed rail routes connecting major Polish cities.
The Polish government has revealed that it intends to connect all major cities to a future high-speed rail network by Most interregional connections rail routes in Poland is operated by PKP Intercity , whilst regional trains are run by a number of operators, the largest of which is Przewozy Regionalne.
The air and maritime transport markets in Poland are largely well developed. LOT is the 28th largest European airline and the world's 12th oldest still in operation , established in from a merger of Aerolloyd and Aero Poland has begun preparations for a construction that can handle million passengers of the Central Communication Port.
Over the course of history, the Polish people have made considerable contributions in the fields of science, technology and mathematics.
Copernicus' achievements and discoveries are considered the basis of Polish culture and cultural identity. Poland's tertiary education institutions; traditional universities , as well as technical, medical, and economic institutions, employ around 61, researchers and members of staff.
There are around research and development institutes, with about 10, researchers. In total, there are around 91, scientists in Poland today.
In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a flourishing centre of mathematics. Other notable scientists from Poland include: Over 40 research and development centers and 4, researchers make Poland the biggest research and development hub in Central and Eastern Europe.
The service was dissolved during the foreign partitions in the 18th century. After regaining independence in , Poland saw the rapid development of the postal system as new services were introduced including money transfers , payment of pensions, delivery of magazines, and air mail.
During wars and national uprisings communication was provided mainly through the military authorities. At present, the service is a modern state-owned company that provides a number of standard and express delivery as well as home-delivery services.
With an estimated number of around 83, employees ,  Poczta Polska also has a personal tracking system for parcels. In the company adopted a strategy that assumes increasing revenues to 6.
Poland, with its 38,, inhabitants, has the eighth-largest population in Europe and the sixth-largest in the European Union.
It has a population density of inhabitants per square kilometer per square mile. In recent years, Poland's population has decreased due to an increase in emigration and a decline in the birth rate.
Since Poland's accession to the European Union on 1 May , a significant number of Poles have emigrated , primarily to the United Kingdom , Germany and Ireland in search of better work opportunities abroad.
The total fertility rate TFR in Poland was estimated in at 1. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages. It is one of the official languages of the European Union.
Until recent decades Russian was commonly learned as a second language, but after the Revolutions of has been replaced by English as the most common second language studied and spoken.
According to the Act of 6 January on national and ethnic minorities and on the regional languages ,  16 other languages have officially recognized status of minority languages: British sucking my cock homemade - I met her on Xgetlaid.
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None of the England team were laughing at the end of a completely one-sided match that saw them take 36 shots to Poland's two, force 26 corners, hit the woodwork twice and have four efforts cleared off the line.
I can wake up in the middle of the night and remember every minute. Poland had gone top of a three-team group with one game to go after beating England in a bad-tempered match in Chorzow in June and Ramsey was coming under pressure from the press.
Nobody was panicking, however. After all, England had been at every World Cup finals since they entered for the first time in , had won the tournament less than eight years earlier, and had been one of the best teams at the finals in Mexico too.
Poland boss Kazimierz Gorski thought otherwise. He knew his players saw Wembley as an impenetrable fortress and, according to Tomaszewski, used that to inspire them.
In the dressing room before kick-off, Gorski told his players: You can play for 20 years and in 1, games and nobody will remember you. But tonight, in one game, against a team like England and at a place like this, you have the chance to put your names in the history books.
To be honest we had played very violently there. Most of the , crowd were expecting England to get their revenge. So were some of the Poland side. If it was not for the exploits of the then year-old LKS Lodz keeper, it might indeed have ended up being a similar scoreline.
But his first eccentric save, after two minutes, was almost his last. Afterwards, one of my team-mates Adam Musial told me 'it was good that he kicked you because he woke you up'.
Chance after England chance followed but, whether it was Tomaszewski's legs, arms or hands, he continued to keep the ball out, even if he dived the wrong way.
When he was beaten, the posts or a team-mate came to his rescue, and the score was goalless at the break. Highlights of the game were being shown on BBC but the match was live on ITV and Clough, who had resigned as Derby boss just two days previously, was one of their pundits.
At half-time he refused to back down on his description of Tomaszewski, and told the nation: Put the kettle on, mother.
Don't worry - the goals are going to come. In a sense, Clough was right; a goal did arrive early in the second half. Sadly for England, it was Poland who scored it.
They knew they would be under pressure but they thought they had the pace to catch England on the break. That is exactly what happened.
Norman Hunter, preferred to Bobby Moore in central defence, came across to pick up the ball on the left touchline near the halfway line but got his feet tangled up.
Robert Gadocha was left free to surge towards the area before playing in Jan Domarski, who was arriving like a train to his right, to hit a low shot that skidded past Emlyn Hughes' challenge and went under Peter Shilton's dive.
Hunter took the blame, and would describe the incident as "the worst moment of his career", but Shilton also accepted he should have done better.
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Sign in to add this to a playlist. Sign in to remove this from recommended. You are now leaving Pornhub. Go Back You are now leaving Pornhub. Blonde, blue-eyed Pennsylvanian cutie Kate England makes you wonder how many innocent-looking girls like her actually do all sorts of nasty things behind closed doors.
On the one hand, she chose her name for its sense of class, but on the other, her favorite position is doggy-style. So I was afraid! Florida, United States of America.
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